Fruit Trees

History
After the establishment of Agricultural Research Institute in 1959 the Horticulture Department was established under the influence of this directorate and it is divided in Vegetable and Fruits departments in 2014.The one of Agricultural Research Institute is fruit Department which has specific activities, therefore, this department with cooperation of   Partner organisations in the 6 climatic zones of Afghanistan, which include Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Kunduz, Balkh and Nangarhar provinces can collect various fruit varieties from centre and provinces to build national collections. There are 938 different types of fruits accessions. We established fruit labs in all our targeted locations, as well as research of fruits and breeding programs and producing clonal parent nurseries for various fruits such as Apples, Pear, Cherries, Apricots, Almond and Plum through layering and cuttings, producing and distributing grafts from MSN and nursery bases for garden development is run in mentioned collection centres.

Vision: Raising quality, quantity and producing of new varieties with high yield and resistant against pests and diseases for development of fruits in Afghanistan.

Mission: Obtaining gardener problems and requirements, so adapting of various experiences and breeding of fruits to produce varietal, resistant to pests and diseases, introduction of good and commercial varieties after economic research and analysis for gardeners.

Objective:

The National Collection of fruit varieties of Afghanistan (NC) is the collection of fruit germplasm of Afghanistan constituted by:

  1. i) The native in situ trees selected for their superior qualities and their vegetative propagated pro-genies planted ex situ in six Perennial Horticulture Development Centres (PHDCs), characterised as per international standards and defined with an accession number and a variety name, based on their Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS).
  2. ii) Imported varieties and rootstocks that complement, complete and enrich the native germplasm, planted in the six Perennial Horticulture Development Centres (PHDCs), defined with an accession number, their original variety name and their original description.

Structure and Locations

List of National Collections

No. Species Estimated total  No. of Accessions  

Located in the PHDCs of

 

1 Almond 100 Mazar – Kunduz
2 Apricot 133 Kabul – Mazar
3 Apple 81 Kabul – Kunduz
4 Pear 53 Kabul -Kunduz
5 Cherry 28 Kabul – Herat
6 Plum 77 Herat – Kandahar
7 Peach 116 Herat – Kandahar
8 Grape 139 Herat – Kandahar
9 Pomegranate 79 Kandahar – Jalalabad
10 Fig 16 Kandahar – Jalalabad
11 Citrus 61 Jalalabad
12 Date palm 6 Jalalabad
13 Loquat 12 Jalalabad(& Kandahar
14 Persimmon 24 Jalalabad
15 Olive 10 Jalalabad
Total 938

Activities:

  • Performance of adaptive and applied fruit research.
  • Maintaining of germplasm and collecting of fruits genetic resources.
  • Fruits breeding
  • Establishment of national collections, demonstration orchards, mother and seed rootstock nurseries.
  • Testing of physical and chemical properties of fruits.
  • Scientific and practical advisory services for the producer, gardener and students of agriculture institutes.

 

Pomology Laboratory:

An analytical laboratory is an essential tool to determine characteristics and assess quality of fresh or preserved goods, like fruits, water, fodder or transformed produces.

To ensure HIGH QUALITY OF ANALYSIS, different factors are needed:

  • adequate space and layout
  • functioning equipment
  • knowledge of procedures
  • Skilled personnel.

 

In particular, the pomology characters enable to distinguish different varieties of fruits, classifying them and giving information about their most appropriate use at household, market and industry level or their suitability to specific environments. This knowledge is of utmost importance either for the selection of varieties to be grown in the different ecosystems either for the preservation of genetic resources at national level. The processed data (statistical analysis) can be made official through catalogues and fruits description following the UPOV rules.

Adoptive Research

Breeding of Fruits: when National Collections were established in 2006 in Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Nangarhar, Balkh and kunduz, the main goal of fruit breeding is to obtain frost resistant fruits, high yield varieties, resistant varieties against drought and  causing less chilling requirements varieties, has been identified for registration and planted in national collections.In the fruit breeding section we have started working on two precious fruits such as almond and apricot to achieve the  main goal of the breeding program to create varieties that are late flowering, self-pollination, low chilling and produce high yields.

 Trails  Pollination Trails: The experiment of fruit pollination purpose is determine Afghanistan indigenous fruits pollinations that shows which of them is self- pollination, cross pollination or good pollinizer for other varieties.

Gibberellin Research Trials: In Kabul and Herat horticulture development centers the gibberellin experience has done in Rawcha Safid, Rawcha Sorkh and Shondor Khani grapes.The experiments purpose is avoiding excessive berry over cluster, evaluating GA3 on quality and quantity of grapes and determining of proper dose of GA3 on flower thinning, rachis elongation and berry sizing.

Apple Rootstocks Research Trail: This experiment purpose is providing appropriate rootstock to various apple varieties so our beloved gardener will not confronted with any problems of gardens construction in future.

Nurseries:

  • Pome fruit rootstock stool bed
  • Stone fruit clonal rootstocks mother plants
  • Pome and stone fruit clonal
  • Seedling and demonstration mother stock of cherry

Achievements: 6 national collections, demonstration orchards and pomology facilitated labs were established, 938 fruit accessions collected to demonstration orchard, mother and seed rootstock nursery and MSN of deferent fruits, finding proper dose of   gibberellin acid for use on raisin grapes, and released 8 varieties of almond. Trained and guidance of approximately 1000 students of agriculture faculties/institutes as well as gardeners and MAILs staff which are relevant to horticulture.

Staff Chart